Toothache, toothache is a common disease in society. Many people suffer from toothache at some point in their lives. Anyone who has experienced that is well aware of its difficulty. Every day many patients visit their dentist to get immediate treatments for their toothache. Sometimes they could not bear the toothache so much. How do teeth decay? How do toothaches come about? To know that, you must first know how a tooth is formed.
A tooth is made up of four main types of tissue. These are the enamel, dentin, dental pulp, and cementum. A tooth can be divided into 3 parts, consisting of 4 types of tissue. The crown above the glass, the cervical area below the glass, the root, and the cervical region between the crown and the root.
Enamel – A tissue found in the crown. The strongest tissue in the human body is an inanimate tissue that has no blood or nerves. Even the strongest tissue is brittle without proper support.
Dental – Found in a crown as well as early part. The tissue beneath the enamel. Provides the necessary support to the enamel. Feels pain when an injury is caused by living tissue. Dental tubules are tubular (tube-like) sections.
Calcareous cavity – The cavity around the tooth in the middle of the tooth. The blood vessels and nerves in the tooth are located in this tissue. Living tissue.
Toothpaste – A tissue on the outside of the tooth at the base of a tooth.
How tooth decay occurs
Tooth decay is the destruction of tooth tissue by acids produced by bacteria. There are four main causes of tooth decay. They are sugary foods, the nature of the tooth, bacteria, and time.
Teeth are stimulated by acids produced by bacteria on sugar and carbohydrates that can be fermented by bacteria.
The nature of the tooth – Foods stay in the pits and fissures on the surface of the tooth and the aforementioned action takes place on those foods. Also changes during tooth growth (calcium deposition problems/fluorosis)
As mentioned earlier, acids produced by certain types of bacteria cause tooth decay.
Time – The amount of acid produced by bacteria on the surface of the tooth affects the decay of the tooth. As the acid exposure time increases, tooth decay increases.
The sugary foods that are eaten stay in the pits, fissures, and between the teeth (interproximal surface). Special bacteria work on the leftover food to produce acids as a by-product. Those acids collide with the enamel, the outer tissue of the tooth. As a result, the calcium in the enamel dissolves. Decreases the amount of calcium in the enamel. This can be seen as a white/yellow spot on the surface of the tooth. This is called the Enamel Caries, the first stage of tooth decay. Enamel is an inanimate tissue that does not cause numbness or pain at this stage.
What is next?
After this stage, the acid passes through the enamel and travels to the tooth, dissolving the calcium in the tooth. Then the strength of the tooth decreases and the support provided by the tooth to the enamel decreases. As the support decreases, the enamel becomes brittle, causing the enamel to break and a hole to form. As the cavity forms, the tooth erupts, causing numbness when ingested with cold water and food.
As food stays in the cavity, the bacterial activity on it increases and the amount of acid produced increases. Acid accelerates tooth decay. Acids and bacteria travel through the dental tubules in the gums to the cavities. Bacterial activation of the tooth causes several symptoms. This is because the tooth is a living tissue. Mild pain, limited to a few seconds, and slight pain during eating are some of those symptoms. This stage is called reversible pulpitis. At this stage, there is no severe pain, nocturnal pain, or pain when chewing.
Irreversible pulpitis is a condition in which the tooth is destroyed and the bacteria become too close to the cavity. During this stage, the amount of blood entering the alveoli increases to fight the bacteria that enter the alveoli. Its purpose is to fight bacteria by the white blood cells in the blood. As the blood volume increases, the pressure in the esophagus increases, and the nerve impulses cause intense pain. The pain is felt even at night and when not eating.
The intense pain gradually subsides and becomes painless. The reason for the reduction in pain is that the nerves, blood vessels, and other tissues in the calf cavity die due to excessive pressure and the tooth becomes lifeless. Decay is called pulp necrosis.
The bacteria then travel through the cavities to the base of the tooth and then to the jawbone, infecting the jawbone outside the root of the tooth. The stage is called periapical periodontitis. The main symptom is severe pain when chewing food. This pain is caused by increased pressure on the root of the tooth when chewing food. Above stage can be followed by abscesses and radicular cysts.
Treatment for each stage
White spots stage – is treated with preventive treatments. These include brushing your teeth properly, minimizing sugar and sugary foods, fluoride gel/varnish treatments, tooth moose treatments, and re-examination
Reversible pulpitis stage – Bacterial tissue removal and normal filling are sufficient. Prevention treatments should also be used.
Irreversible pulpitis, necrotic pulp, periapical periodontitis – Permanent treatment in these stages is a tooth extraction or nerve filling.
Abscess – Pus should be removed and medication should be given to remove the tooth or fill the nerve.
Radicular cyst – should be surgically removed.
Control of tooth decay
As mentioned earlier, there are 4 factors that contribute to tooth decay. Those factors need to be controlled to control tooth decay.
Sugary foods – reduce the amount and frequency of toffees, biscuits (including crackers), and sugary foods that can stimulate the teeth. The most important factor is to reduce the frequency.
The nature of the tooth – In addition to the before-mentioned preventive measures, the fissure sealant treatment reduces acid tooth decay.
Bacteria – The use of fluoride toothpaste and prescription mouthwash can reduce the number of bacteria in the mouth.
Brushing your teeth regularly, reducing the frequency of sugary foods, and rinsing your mouth after eating can reduce the risk of acid tooth decay.
Something to think about – Why is it not advisable to use toothpaste to stop tooth decay according to advertisements without a doctor’s prescription?